Legal Copyright Eligibility For Copyright Protection

There are many laws that protect people in the world. Some of these laws are meant to protect rights covered under the Bill of Rights, and other rights are meant to protect the things we create. The eligibility for copyright protection is extended to anyone who is able to create something that is tangible.

There are international laws that provide copyright protection, and the laws for people living in the United States are covered under the doctrine of 17 USCA Section 102(a). The eligibility for copyright protection is clearly outlined in this document and business owners would fare well to spend a little bit of time reading through this doctrine because it may keep someone else from stealing the royalties of your work.

The eligibility for copyright protection extends to any tangible thought that is applied to paper. If it is still in your mind or in the development process where the idea has not been put down on paper or some other solid form, then the eligibility for copyright protection will not apply to it. Some people expect this to apply and are sorely disappointed when they are turned down at the copyright registration office.

If you want to create a novel or other literary work, then it would qualify for eligibility for copyright protection. Perhaps you are a photographer or a tourist who captured an exquisite photo of an event that is a once-in-a-life time experience. Since you placed yourself at great risk taking the photograph, you want to register the photo and copyright it so that other people can not make money from it without your approval. That photograph falls under the eligibility for copyright protection.

If you wanted to create a description of the photograph, then that description would qualify for eligibility for copyright protection as long as it is written down. The information can be stored on any means that you like such as compact disk, a computer or included as a caption underneath the picture and framed. All methods used to create the description fall under the eligibility for copyright protection.

Although a sculpture would not be considered a written work, it is still a method of expression that has a solid and tangible form to it. The sculpture falls under the auspices of eligibility for copyright protection. No further documentation is really necessary. It is real and can be held. Therefore, it is protected by copyright from the second it is created. That fact should spur the creative juices in many people who were unaware of what is covered under copyright protection.

If you have only an idea to reflect on, then that idea does not fall under the auspices of eligibility for copyright protection. The idea might be covered under a confidentiality agreement if you hire someone to take your idea and develop a product description from it, or content for your business website. When the idea becomes a mode for expression, then it maintains eligibility for copyright protection.

Training to be a Legal Secretary in Tucson

Law firms and corporations around Tucson are searching for qualified legal secretaries to fill their open positions. This situation is similar for legal secretaries across the United States, as the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts the field will grow by 18% through 2018. Continue reading to learn what legal secretaries do and how you can transition into this field in less than two years.

Duties of Legal Secretaries

Legal secretaries form the backbone of the attorney support network. Typical duties include conducting legal research, verifying document formats and content before court submission, reviewing and summarizing legal journals, generating correspondence, and preparing legal document such as subpoenas, summonses, motions, responses, and complaints. They work closely with attorneys and/or paralegals.

Legal secretaries are usually responsible for maintaining the office’s workflow and ensuring that all necessary administrative tasks are completed. Tucson legal secretaries schedule interoffice and client meetings, maintain files, answer phones, and manage projects. They may also be trusted with helping prioritize attorney emails, distributing mail and faxes, and updating a departmental website.

Typical employers include law offices, government agencies, hospitals, school districts, real estate agencies, insurance companies, and banks. In many cases, legal secretaries can choose to specialize in one of these distinct areas.

Tucson Legal Secretary Classes

Because legal secretaries work in such a specialized profession, the best way to learn is to take classes through a Tucson legal secretary school. In less than two years, these institutions can start you in your new career.

One of the most important classes at a Tucson legal secretary school covers legal terminology and introduces the basics of the legal profession. Students learn how to communicate effectively–written and orally–and how to act responsibly and ethically across a variety of situations.

Computer skills are another essential component of Tucson legal secretary classes. Students learn how to perform the critical activities of a modern office, such as creating spreadsheets, preparing presentations, composing and editing documents, and constructing and maintaining databases.

Other classes offered at a Tucson legal secretary school focus on filing techniques, transcription, and general secretarial skills.

Whether you are new to office support or just need to make a change, becoming a legal secretary is a worthwhile career move. Not only do you have multiple employment opportunities, but you also can work in a high prestige field with flexible hours, room for advancement, and plenty of contacts for networking up the corporate ladder.

Tucson legal secretary school are designed to prepare their graduates for entry-level employment and they want you to obtain the very best career opportunity available. More information about Tucson legal secretary classes are available in the site.

Collecting Vintage Perfume Bottles The History of Perfume Bottles

Collecting Vintage Perfume Bottles: The History of Perfume Bottles

The History and Evolution of Perfume Bottles (courtesy of http://www.perfumes.com/eng/bottles.htm)

Perfume Bottles in Ancient Times

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The enticing scent of the perfect perfume and the eye-catching elegance of the bottle has been an important part of world culture since ancient times. The oldest known perfume bottles came from the Ancient Egyptians. They crafted containers made of stone and alabaster which kept the perfume cool, and prevented the liquid from leaking. The Ancient Egyptians also used clay pots that they sculpted into designs of people and animals.

Perfume was an important part of the Egyptians preparation of the dead. Many of these ancient perfume bottles have been found in tombs. Containers have been found made of wood with different compartments for each perfume.

Glass bottles were also a part of ancient perfume history. They date all the way back to the fifteenth century BC. Perfume bottles made of glass were lightweight, and also prevented the liquid from leaking. Eventually the glass bottles were created in a variety of colors.

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Perfume bottles discovered in Palestine were made of glass, and were designed to have a narrow long neck. These delicate bottles were primarily found in tombs. Larger perfume bottles were also found in tombs because it was believed to mask the smell of the dead bodies.

The Ancient Greeks also made beautiful containers to hold their perfume. They hand painted vases which were often shaped as animals. They used lidded bowls for holding less expensive perfumes.

The Roman’s cherished their perfumes. They used hollowed-out precious stones to carry their most valuable fragrances.

Early European Perfume Bottles

Europeans used many different materials to store their precious perfumes. The most common materials that were used were glass, gold, silver, porcelain, semi-precious stones and shells. Perfume was commonly used in the form of incense. Some incense burners consisted of a container held from chains that was swung like a pendulum during Mass in the Christian Church. Stationary incense burners were also commonly used in Churches.

Some European perfume containers were designed to be worn. Semi-precious stones held perfumes and were pinned to clothing. Silver earrings were worn that contained perfume soaked fabric inside of them. Many containers were designed to be hung around the neck, from a belt, or from a finger ring.

Perfume bottles were handcrafted and designed by artists, jewelers and goldsmiths. Each bottle was gently crafted and designed to be worn, or displayed on a table.

Small wooden boxes were created to hold a sponge soaked with perfume. These boxes would fit inside a pocket and could be taken out and inhaled at any time.

Porcelain was used in the Thirteenth Century. Many highly decorative bottles were created. Boxes were created that included perfume and other essentials. Some boxes contained several bottles of perfumes, a funnel and a mixing dish.

Most fragrances during this time were first sold in inexpensive, plain bottles. Then the perfume was transferred into a fancy bottle at home.

Perfume Bottles of the Early 1800s and 1900s

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The design of perfume bottles made a dramatic change in the late 1800’s. There was a great incline of the arts movement called Art Nouveau. Most Art Nouveau designs consisted of floral motifs, and were primarily used to design the perfume label and box, leaving the perfume bottles fairly traditional in styling.

Several famous pieces of this time were the Bouquet Nouveau, Royal Vaissier, and Cri du Coeur. The Bouquet Nouveau was a Roger & Gallet perfume. It had a square green-glass bottle with an unusual gilded brass casing. Royal Vaissier displayed magnificent Art Nouveau style paper motifs in the form of a fleur de lys designed by Baccarat. Cri du Coeur (Cry from the heart) was a Lorenzy-Palanca powder box. It had a woman-flower image which is a rare high-style Art Nouveau icon.

Belle Epoque was the preferred style for perfume presentations at this time. The style tended to be traditional, cluttered, very elegant and very French. Examples of perfume bottles of this style were Coronis by Monpelas and Roger & Gallet’s Gloire de Paris.

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A new trend in perfume bottles was to create a bottle that looked like a luxurious crystal with an elaborate brass cap. The bottles had classic designs, and the brass caps matched the ornate gold labels and boxes. A few examples of this style were Rose Ispahan and Prince Igor by Riguard, Rose de Chiraz by F. Wolff & Sohn, Stylis by Delettrez, Eros by Richard Hudnut, Le Lilas by Riguard, and Mavis by Vivaudou.

During the 1910’s, there was a noticeable shift in the design of the traditional perfume bottle. The emergence of psychology and new perfume creations led to much more complex perfume bottles and names. The power of suggestion and dreams was having a huge effect on cultures in general, and perfumes were also affected. Perfumes were being marketed for specific times of day, seasons, and people.

Guerlain introduced the perfume “Voila pourquoi j’aimais Rosine” (That is why I loved Rosine). The bottle resembled a vase, and the stopper was concealed under silk flowers. The bottle shape was again used in Guerlain’s “Muguet” (Lily of the Valley). It was later re-introduced in all white with a white ribbon replacing the silk flowers. This presentation was an immediate success. Guerlain later introduced “Le Mouchoir de Monsieur” (The Gentleman’s Handkerchief) which had an innovative bottle with the shape of a triangle and a spiral motif on each side.

Rene Lalique was approached in 1906 by the perfumer Francois Coty to design the bottles for his perfumes. Coty was well established in the perfume industry and desired both beautiful and affordable bottles to hold his perfumes. Lalique was successful in fulfilling Coty’s wishes, and continued to design bottles for his future creations. His most famous designs include Au Coeur des Calices, L’Entrainement and Ambre Antique. He also designed bottles for other perfumers. Some of his most famous creations were developed for Houbigant, Roger et Gallet, D’Orsay, Forvil, and Arys and Molinard.

Other creative perfume bottles of this time were “Rediviva” (Revived) by La Compagnie Francais du Lysogene. It was shaped like a porcelain coffeepot, and the perfume was dispensed through the end of the spout. Illusion was presented by Dralle in 1908. It had a silver case shaped like a lighthouse, and the perfume bottle was held inside of the case.

The Oriental Movement in Paris began in 1910 by Paul Poiret, a famous French fashion designer. Pioret introduced an Oriental style in clothing, furnishings and perfumes. Women, who longed to wear the gowns he designed, but could not afford them, could still wear his perfume. For women who did wear his collections, the perfume was the final touch. Poiret developed a new perfume “Chez Pioret” with beautiful and innovative packaging. The bottle was made of clear glass with a colored glass stopper. It was decorated with gold tassels, and had a new label with a classic “R”. Pioret used his boxes as a tool for expressing the style of the fragrance.

Bichara Malhame was a very successful perfumer in Paris. His famous label on his perfumes portrayed himself seizing a mythological figure of Fortune by the hair. He also appeared on a Baccarat stopper wearing a wig, and appearing as an English judge.

Perfume Bottles of the 1920s

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The 1920’s brought a new era to perfumes. After World War I, many American Soldiers brought perfumes back to the states from Paris. This greatly influenced the perfume market in the United States. The perfume industry expanded rapidly, and many new perfume companies emerged.

Many fashion designers expanded their merchandise by including perfume. Most of these designers knew very little about creating a good fragrance, but they did know about style. They understood the importance of the visual presentation, which became vital to the success of the perfume.

Mascarades were very popular at this time, and had a strong influence on perfume bottles. “Masque Rouge” was introduced in a very modern bottle, and the box had a red mask motif. “Mascarades” by Cherigan came in a black bottle with a golden face under a rain of gold dust. “Arlequinade” was a Rosine perfume which resembled a Harlequin costume. It had gilded and clear triangles on the bottle, and a dark-green Bakelite stopper in the form of Harlequin’s hat and an orange wood tassel.

“Bakanir” was introduced in 1927 by Honore Payan. The bottle was a simple geometric shape with a stopper resembling an exotic headdress. The box was covered with painted leather with a ceramic plaque. It was one of the most luxurious presentations for perfume.

Baccarat perfume bottles were designed using superior quality crystal. They designed bottles for most of the perfume companies during this time. Two of their famous perfume bottles were designed in 1927. “Silver Butterfly” by Delettrez was made of pink crystal with silver ornamentation. It was designed in the shape of a vertical hexagon with an abstract motif. “Astris” by L.T. Piver was shaped as a star, and featured a silver six-pointed motif.

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One of the most famous perfumes, Chanel No 5, was released by Chanel in 1921. The perfume was revolutionary in scent and presentation. The bottle was a very simple design. The perfume was intended to make the masculine world available to women.

Perfume Bottles of the 1930s

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With the stock market crash of 1929, and the depression that devastated the United States, the perfume market slowed down dramatically. There remained a more limited demand in Paris, and only the strongest companies such as Baccarat, Brosse and Lalique were able to continue. The bottles became less elaborate, tended to be conservative and were often machine made.

Perfume bottles during this time were less frequently inspired by nature, and more often reflected Hollywood movies and metropolitan cities. Lalique designed the presentation for “Je Reviens” by Worth. The bottle resembled New York skyscrapers. It was a tall ribbed bottle in dark-blue glass. The stopper was sky blue, and the box had a chrome surface. It was a very modern presentation.

Jean Patou released the perfume “Normandie” in 1935. It was inspired by the luxury ship the Normandie. All First Class Passengers on the ship’s maiden voyage were given a souvenir model of the Normandie. Inside the model of the ship was a crystal bottle of perfume.

Perfume Bottles of the 1940s

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World War II caused another decrease in new perfume creations, as well as a decline in the quality of perfume presentations. After the war, the perfume industry was re-established, and many new perfumers emerged.

Christian Dior and Nina Ricci both presented works of art that strongly influenced the perfume industry. “Miss Dior” by Christian Dior was offered in an elegant clear crystal Baccarat bottle. Dior used a classic look that was elegant and luxurious. Nina Ricci was known for feminine and romantic creations. L’Air du Temps was released in 1948 and sold in a sunburst shaped bottle. The stopper was decorated with a dove. The lid of the box was lined with white silk and depicted a woman and a flying dove. The 1951 box was in the shape of a birdcage covered in yellow silk, and was illuminated by a battery.

Perfume Bottles of the 1950s

http://www.zensoaps.com/perfumesale/C-danatabu.jpg Perfumes once again became inspired by romance in the 1950’s. Salvador Dali designed the bottle for “Monsieur Marquay” by Marquay. The bottle featured an elegant man with a top hat and bow tie. The box was simple white with Dali’s moustache and signature.

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Christian Dior introduced “Diorissimo” in 1956. The special edition bottle was designed by Baccarat. The crystal bottle was in the form of an amphora, and the stopper had a magnificent flower bouquet in gilded bronze designed by Chrystiane Charles.

“Magie” was released by Lancome in 1950. Every Christmas a special edition was released. It was presented in a Baccarat spherical bottle with stars, and a box covered in leather or satin.

Modern Day Perfume Bottles

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Pierre Dinand was the first perfume bottle designer to produce perfume bottles exclusively. Dinand designs bottles with a modern feel, and uses the bottle as an expression of the perfume. He has produced numerous bottles using state of the art plastics, and has transformed perfume bottles in the 1980’s and 1990’s.

Serge Mansau is another modern day perfume bottle designer. He prefers to focus his designs on nature’s beauty. His prize winning bottle for “Montana” was inspired by a maple seed. He has used flowers, stones and waterfalls as ideas for his bottle designs.

Jewelers have also entered the perfume business. Van Cleef & Arpels were the first jewelers to release a fragrance. Cartier followed An Cleef & Arpels with the bottle for Panthere in 1986. Tiffany, Bvlgari, Chopard and Boucheron have also launched fragrances.

Baccarat and Lalique continue to design the highest quality perfume bottles. Perfume bottle collecting has also become very popular. Most collectable perfume bottles come from French perfumes and date from the 19th and 20th centuries.

Modern day perfume bottles are expected to give the feel of the fragrance. The perfume bottle makes the first impression, and often helps the buyer decide if they want to add the fragrance to their personal collection.

Tips for Collecting Vintage Perfume Bottles

Always Keep an Eye out for opportunities to add to your collection! You never know where or when you could stumble upon the perfect bottle to add to your growing collection. Check out estate sales, garage sales, flea markets, antique stores, and specialty vintage perfume bottle websites online. You may even be able to find one or two in your own family, so ask around! What could be more special than a family heirloom perfume bottle in your collection? Decide how you want to collect your vintage perfume bottles. Do you want to only collect a certain brand? Or maybe you want to collect only perfume bottles manufactured during a certain time period? Creating a theme for your collection will make your collection as a whole more valuable and interesting. Do your research. It is good to know a little bit about what you are collecting before you start shopping! This way you will know if you happen to stumble upon a rare, unique find! Knowing a lot about your new hobby will also help you stay engaged. Books such as the Antique Trader Perfume Bottles Price Guide and The Wonderful World of Collecting Perfume Bottles, by Jane Flanagan are great resources for perfume bottle collectors. Don’t discard the mini bottles! When you are shopping for perfume bottles, snatch up the mini sizes of your favorite brands. Sometimes, these are rarer and are worth more than their larger counterparts! Check local events and conventions. You never know when a vintage perfume bottle convention could be coming to a town near you. These are great opportunities to learn more about perfume bottles and find some really great deals and unique bottles. Become a member of the IPBA. The International Perfume Bottle Association. Being a member of this association gives you access to exclusive newsletters and information about vintage perfume bottles. They also hold events each year, including a convention, conference, and perfume bottle auction.

Las Vegas Nevada Real Estate

Here’s a list of the most pricey communities in the state with apartments for lease.

Enterprise, NV – ordinary apartment lease: $1,356em>

This southwestern suburb of Las Vegas with a population of 93,969 tops the list with the highest rent prices in the State. The local community has veteran wonderful expansion over the very last decade — there were fewer than 15,000 residents in 2000. The community is actually upscale with great browsing and straightforward access to Las Vegas which is only 10 miles away. There is a new 80-acre “mountain park” here that has an exciting western-themed village for youngsters to examine and trails top to the summit.

Henderson, NV – typical apartment rent: $one,206

A southeastern suburb of Vegas situated about fifteen miles from the strip, Henderson is extra established than Enterprise, offering extra in the way of buying and mature developments. A terrific put for energetic individuals, Henderson has a well-liked aquatic complex, a 140-acre bird viewing preserve with nine ponds, a recreation middle with a 40,000-square-foot gymnasium, and the Ethel M. Folks that are not from Las Vegas look to believe that we all reside on “The Strip.” Practically nothing is even more from fact. The most well-liked areas to live, such as Green Valley, Southern Highlands, Anthem, and Summerlin are suburbs nowhere near The Strip. Southwest and Northwest Las Vegas are escalating at astronomical rates and, literally, housing can not be built swiftly enough to handle our growth.

Housing

About 34% of the households in Las Vegas are rentals. You will locate an abundance of rental options through Las Vegas, ranging from apartments and condominiums to unique corporate housing to single-family properties. The typical apartment rent (for all apartments) is $738 with a vacancy charge of much less than 5%. Apartments provide some of the most effective lifestyles to Nevada residents. Apartments in Nevada are distinctive than most states. They are new, bigger than most and give all of the facilities that newer housing communities offer you. Several of the more recent communities provide 1, 2 and 3 bedroom units, with or with out garages.

Las Vegas authentic estate is nevertheless fair. It has enhanced significantly in excess of the past year, but continues to offer you some of the most economical housing in the region. Our diversity in housing selections make it easy for you to decide on from city houses to condominiums, gated residing to planned communities, superior rises to manufactured residences.The good quality of lifestyle in Las Vegas is typically far better than in most regions. Las Vegas provides top-notch physical exercise services, outstanding restaurants, the positive aspects of any other town, plus a lot additional. The common property owner is 22 a long time previous, so there is lots of option to advance in your occupation.

Wages

Nevada ranks in the upper 25 percentile of wages presented all the way through the United States. This coupled with our lower expense of living may make Nevada quite attractable to all pros. Some media outlets have talked about the lower degree of education in Las Vegas, but our common median income continues to topple most main markets.

Functioning in Las Vegas

Casinos are no lengthier just gaming they are enjoyment, dining, retail and hospitality. It also is residence to quite a few fiscal institutions these as Citibank, Family Credit Services and Initial Bank of Marin.

When You Should Hire A Houston Criminal Law Attorney

The legal system in the United States is very confusing to the average person because of the way codes are written and the particular language that is used. This is usually the reason why you should hire a Houston Criminal Attorney if you are involved in certain types of legal matters in the state of Texas. Of course, if you don’t know anything about the law, how will you know when you should seek the services of a qualified lawyer? The truth is, there are some basic things that are easy to learn about the legal system that help you determine if you need legal counsel and which type of professional to acquire.

First of all, you need to know that the criminal justice system is based on two things: actus reus and mens rae. Actus reus is the committing of an act of guilt while mens rae is the state of mind when committing the act. This defines a crime as an act of guilt (that breaks a law) committed by a person with the intention of said act. Thus, if you are accused of committing a crime it is because it has been determined that you had the intention of participating in an illegal activity and then committed to the activity. A Houston Criminal Law Attorney can help you better understand the terms.

Secondly, you should know that there are two types of crimes: misdemeanors and felonies. Misdemeanors are crimes that can be punishable by imprisonment for under a year. Misdemeanors include things like:
*Petty theft and larceny
*Driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol (without incident)
*Minor in possession of alcohol
*Reckless driving
*Trespassing
*Disorderly conduct

Felonies, then, are crimes that can be punishable by imprisonment of more than a year. Felonies include things like:
*Murder
*Assault
*Rape
*Kidnapping
*Robbery
A qualified Houston Criminal Attorney can help you determine what action you should take based on which category of crime in which your case falls.

Determining if a crime has been committed is only part of the criminal law process. It is important to have a Criminal Law Attorney because the other side of criminal law is sentencing, or punishment. Every crime has a set type of punishment that has been determined to be suitable. This punishment can be jail time, fines, community service, or a combination of these. Your attorney can often negotiate these limitations based on your personal employment, financial, and family responsibilities, which is another reason they are a worthy investment.

The bottom line is that if you are considering hiring a professional Houston Criminal Law Attorney then you should at least see if you can get a free consultation. Many lawyers offer this service to help educate potential clients on the complexities of the legal system and to help ease their mind. In fact, the peace of mind you can get from knowing that a qualified professional is handling your case for you is usually worth what they charge.

Steps To Size, Design & Install Glass Block Showers

Understanding how to develop the right size shower base and shower walls with glass blocks does not need to be some mysterious process. If youll follow the steps in this article youll have an easy to clean, structurally sound, and unique shower you can enjoy in your home or commercial property for years to come.

Step 1) What type of glass block shower do you want?

There are basically two types of showers you can use – a shower without a door, and a shower with a door. Heres an overview of where to use both:

A)Showers without a door (walk in and roll in showers) Door-less showers have become hot in bathroom design over the last 5 years. The two most popular types of these showers are walk in and roll in showers. The biggest advantage of walk in showers is you can eliminate the cost of the shower door and having to bend over to clean around the doors framing system. The roll in shower also does not have a door, but also eliminates the curb around the base that someone has to step over to get into the shower. This makes the shower much more accessible to those with special needs. The roll in shower base is gradually sloped in towards the drain. The biggest disadvantages of the doorless showers is their bases (or platforms) need to be sized larger.

B)Showers with a door (neo angle or corner showers) Most showers have doors to prevent water from splashing out. A popular type of shower enclosure is a neo angle variety that is placed in the corner of a bathroom to conserve space. The advantage of a shower enclosure system with a door is that it can fit into tighter spaces (these showers can be as small as 32 or 36).

Step 2) What type of glass block shower base do you want? How do you size this base and design it out at your project site?

There are two generic types of shower bases available for block (1) the preformed base and (2) the custom concrete base.

The preformed base is created and sized before it is brought to the job site and can be made out of acrylic, cultured marble, or other solid surface materials. It is generally thought to cost less than a custom base, which is often true, but not always. The biggest advantage of these types of systems is they are built as one solid unit to minimize the concern about water leakage through the base. The biggest disadvantage is their size cannot be adjusted at the job site. Pittsburgh Corning makes an acrylic right or left hand entry walk in glass block shower base measuring 72 x 51, a Neo Angle shower measuring 51 x 51, a Square corner shower measuring 48 x 48 and even an acrylic shower base 60 x 32 that can be used to convert a small existing tub space into a new contemporary shower!

The custom concrete or mud set pan base is sized at the new home, remodeling, or commercial building site. Since glass block cannot be cut like tile, youll need to use layout cards that correspond to the size of the block units to make sure the custom base youll make will match up with the specific block sizes for your design. Most of the layout cards are approximately 4 wide (3 7/8 is the exact size) to accommodate for the most common thickness of block used for showers. The other base thickness is 3 1/8 wide, although design options with this thickness series are more limited.

Step 3) Choosing the right sizes, shapes, and colors to make your glass block shower cool and unique.

There are a wide selection of block sizes, patterns, shapes, colors and even artistically designed murals available for your shower. Heres a brief overview of your options:

oSizes and thicknesses of glass blocks for showers Glass masonry units are made is both metric and American sizes. Most of the blocks available in the United States are American sized. The American sized blocks are available in 4 x 8, 6 x 6, 6 x 8, 8 x 8, and 12 x 12. Specialty shapes can help you turn corners, make 45 degree neo angle showers, create rounded or radius walls if youre looking to make a walk in or roll in shower, or finish off the end of the shower wall with a smooth bullnose look. The blocks have nominal sizes meaning the actual size of the block units is smaller allowing for a mortar joint to adhere the block to one another (an 8 x 8 block actually measures 7 x 7 ). The blocks for showers are 3 and 4 thick. Thinner block (3 1/8) are more cost effective, but shower design options are much more limited in this thickness of block.

oPatterns, designs and colored glass blocks Blocks come in a multitude of patterns providing different levels of privacy, style, and design options. The block are now available in standard and custom colors, tints, and artistically decorated murals to match any interior design style. Check out a comprehensive block web site to see the possibilities.

Step 4) How tall should you make your glass block shower? What do you need to do to make it structurally sound? Most block showers are built on a curb (with the exception of the roll in shower) which is 4 to 5 in height. Since many shower heads are placed 84 above the finished floor consider building your glass block wall 80 tall (this will make the size of your glass block wall + the size of your base equal to the height of your shower head). To make the glass shower walls structurally sound they should be tied into side walls with anchors every third coursing of block (usually this is every 24).

Step 5) Dont worry about any of the first 4 steps and call a glass block shower supplier and installation professional If you really dont want to figure out what size, shape, and shower base is best call a block specialty company who offers design, supply and installation services. This type of company will usually come to your home or business (without a charge), measure your shower space, figure out the possible types of bases and showers for you, and install it with a guarantee.

How a Foreign National Can Buy Real Estate in America

Opportunities for real estate investment for foreigners is wide
and varied in the United States. It doesn’t matter where you’re from and
what currency you’d be using to purchase a property, you have a
property waiting for you.

There are generally three kinds of real
estate investment available to foreigners. These investments include the
commercial estate investment and residential property investment.
Residential properties are further classified into single family
properties, apartments or condominiums and recreational properties.
Regardless of what kind of real estate you are interested in, there are
all sorts of tax ramifications, financing options and legal requirements
that you have to deal with.

Why Should You Invest in the U.S. Real Estate Market?

You’ve
probably heard of the increasing number of foreign real estate
investments in the United States. This is not surprising. With the
troubles that the real estate investment market is facing in the United
States, greater opportunities in real estate investment were opened to
foreign investors.

With the dollar’s value in its all time low,
foreign investors are finding real estate bargains all over the United
States. There are no shortages of deals in this market. More and more
distressed properties are being sold everywhere and foreigners are
pouring in millions buying these foreclosed or distressed properties.
The United States real estate has become a fairly attractive long-term
investment for foreign investors.

In November of 2006, the
National Association of Realtors released a report entitled “Foreign
Investments in U.S Real Estate: Current Trends and Historical
Perspective”. The report showed that there has been a steady increase in
foreign real estate investment in the United States. This is especially
after the euro and the loonie became stronger in the face of the
continuous devaluation of the US dollar. Prime bargains were opened to
foreigners. Many foreigners have now looked into the possibility of
retiring or settling in the United States.

If you’re a foreigner,
you would find a lot of reasons why you should invest in the United
States real estate market. Aside from the fact that the floating
exchange rate has given you a lot of leverage over the bargaining table,
the financial market is a pretty good reason why you should invest in
the US real estate.

The financial market in the United States in
relation to the real estate market is quite liberal and the restrictions
against foreign investors are pretty reasonable. This is ideal for
foreign companies that are seeking to invest in the real estate market
in the United States in order to avoid tariff restrictions and are
considering setting up an office or a company in the United States.

Furthermore,
despite the devaluation of the US dollar and the wide foreclosures of a
lot of property, the real estate market remains to be stable, though
slightly shaky, due to foreign investors’ capital appreciation. Domestic
real estate buyers may not necessarily share the same opinion, but the
market has remained to be strong for foreign real estate buyers. This
may be largely credited to the fact that there is minimal risk for them.

Why are Foreign Real Estate Investments Safe and Profitable?

There
are a lot of investments you can make, but the safest you can make
right now is investing your money in real properties. This is another
good reason aside from the fact that you can make a pretty nifty profit,
if you like, particularly now with the widespread property foreclosures
and seemingly continuous US dollar devaluation. This is especially true
if you are going to use the euro or the loonie when making your
investment.

But why is US real estate investment safe for foreigners?

It
is undeniable that stock investments are not a safe avenue at this
point. The recession has not only affected the US economy; the same
recession has greatly affected worldwide stock investments. Stocks
values are dropping. It is also a fact that even without the current
economic situation, stock values fluctuates.

On the other hand,
real estate investments are pretty stable if you would compare it to
stock investments – or even bond or mutual fund investments. With real
estate investment, you’d be putting your money in an investment that
would grow in value as years go by.

What are the Benefits of Foreign Real Estate Investment?

US
state government supports foreign investments and along this line has
formulated various tax breaks to encourage foreign investment on real
estate. Many of these tax breaks are not available in many countries. In
fact, most countries would frown at foreigners owning real properties
within their territory.

Foreign real estate investment in the
United States is open to everyone. As long as you can afford to buy the
property or at least comply with the mortgage requirements and
payments, you can secure for yourself a pretty good property in the
United States. Again, with the current economic situation of the United
States, this is the perfect chance for you to make an investment.

Another
great benefit that you can take advantage of is the availability of
mortgage financing. Lenders have opened their doors to foreign investors
who are looking into purchasing a property. So, you don’t have to
actually deplete your bank account. You can actually secure a mortgage
loan and gradually pay it off.

I’m Canadian, What Are My Financing Options?

There
is a steady increasing rate of Canadian real estate investors in the
United States; and accordingly, the government has made certain that
they have attractive financing options available to them.

If
you’re Canadian – or if you’re a foreigner – you’d find a lot of reasons
why you should buy a piece of real property in the United States. For
Canadians, the parity of the currencies or the apparent devaluation of
the US dollar is a pretty good reason itself. But how do you finance
your purchase?

There are various financing options available to
you depending on which state you are in. In Arizona, for instance, you’d
get favorable financing terms if you are purchasing a property for
recreational purposes, that is, you do not derive any income or benefit
from your purchase or ownership. You will be required, however, to sign
up a disclosure agreement and give a 30% down payment for your loan. To
qualify though for a loan, you may be required to show availability of
liquid reserves for a period of three to six months. You may also be
required to present a minimum of 3-month bank statement.

If you
are purchasing a property for investment, you’d probably meet stricter
terms. Requirements may be more stringent. For instance, you could be
required to give a down payment of more than 30% and you may be required
to show one year worth of liquidity reserves.

Regardless of your reasons, if you feel like you can
fulfill the requirements of a financing loan, you can then proceed to
actually applying for a mortgage loan. Also, keeping yourself updated
with the financing terms flux may be a wise idea.

Understanding the Tax Ramifications of Real Estate Investment

The
first foreigner to have ever bought a real estate property in the
United States was Peter Minuit. This opened the doors to foreign real
estate investors. After a couple of centuries later, foreign real estate
investment has grown into huge proportions, accounting for
billion-of-dollar worth of industry.

The low risk attached to US
real estate market, the availability of countless properties, and the
steady market liquidity attract foreign investors in droves. The initial
snag, however, is the process of understanding the legal ramifications
of foreign real estate investment.

What you have to understand is
that foreign investment in the United States can take a lot of forms. A
foreigner has various options. He can acquire direct interest. He can
acquire an interest in the real estate through a partnership, a
corporation, or a limited liability company. The latter is the typical
structure used by foreign investors.

Limited partnership or
Limited Liability Company offers financial protection or indirect asset
protection, especially in cases of bankruptcy, law suits and taxes.
Foreign investors are generally taxed on the property as if they hold
the property in direct interest.

Ideally, you should secure the
services of a real estate accountant to help you out with the tax
ramifications, but it would help if you, at least, know the basics
before you actually talk to an accountant.

There are tax
consequences that you have to deal with when you buy a real estate in
the United States. You would need an Individual Taxpayer
Identification Number which you will use with all your tax transactions.
Your investment in real estates can be treated as a portfolio
investment and will be accounted for as an investment income which can
either be fixed or a periodic income. This is typically taxed at 30% on
gross revenues. This tax though does not apply though to all foreign
investors. Tax rates would vary depending on the tax personality the
foreign investor opted for. For instance, a corporation would be taxed
differently.

Other things that you should take note of are
availability and requirements of tax refunds and state tax laws on real
estate properties as they may differ from federal laws, among other
things.

By knowing all these things, you may save yourself from a
lot of hassles when you finally approach a real estate accountant. You’d
be in same wavelength when you finally get down to talking business. It
is, however, very important that you secure the services of an
accountant. You’d have an easier time dealing with the taxes
ramifications. You’d also have assistance ensuring that you comply with
all the accounting aspect of your investment. This is especially true if
you are purchasing a real property for investment purposes.

Do You Need to Secure the Service of a Real Estate Lawyer?

If
you are considering buying a property in the United States, you need
to secure the services of a real estate attorney – someone who could
help you with the legal issues concerning your purchase. It is tempting
to forego securing the service of a lawyer to save money, but this could
cost you a lot of money in the long run. Make sure that you have an
experienced and trustworthy lawyer to help you out. Make sure that you
have thoroughly checked out his credentials, profile, history of
successful cases handled by him, and other factors that would influence
your decision. You could check online and look for a lawyer working
within the state where you are considering purchasing a property.

Functions of a Real Estate Lawyer

There
is no actual distinctive function for a lawyer in a real estate case.
However, you would really need the assistance of a lawyer for various
tasks. A real estate lawyer would review the sales contract for you. He
would also check on the title and other documents relating to the
property. A lawyer would also review your mortgage contract and make the
necessary adjustments or corrections. You could also get him to review
with you the legal and tax issues concerning the purchase. A real estate
attorney could also make the necessary adjustments relating to various
expenses and costs involved in the purchase. He would assess your
eligibility for tax refunds and draft the documents and statements
relating to this.

Putting it simply, a real estate lawyer will be
your watchdog. He would guide you through the whole process of
purchasing a real estate in the United States in order to make sure that
you will be legally protected. You will have a capable and trustworthy
liaison to help you out with the contract. He will also face legal
disputes if any arise.

Tips on How to Invest in Real Estate Successfully

Now,
if you’ve fully bought into the idea of real estate investing in the
United States, you might just want to know how to go about investing in
real estate successfully. If you want to be successful in this venture,
the first thing that you have to avoid is overanalyzing. Of course, it
is a good idea to carefully think through your actions but it is a bad
idea to overanalyze your investment to nonexistence. You might lose a
great opportunity.

Before you purchase the property though, it
might be wise to check the property value. If it sits well with you and
you can reasonably afford the property, go ahead and make the purchase.

If
you are considering the property for a quick flip, make sure that the
property is in perfect condition and in good area. This is to ensure
that you could double or actually triple your return of investment. If
you can inspect the property yourself, do so. If not, a good and
trustworthy agent can help you with this task.

Another important
thing to remember when you’re buying real estate is good financing. You
should take your time to carefully consider all your financing options.
Foreign investors can email in their queries to various lending
institutions. It is a good idea to make sure that you’ve had their terms
and rates on paper because they tend to change these terms and charge
you with a lot of junk. Your real estate agent can help you with
reviewing the escrow charges.

The bottom line, however, is that it
is very important that you do your homework before you actually buy a
real property. Investing in real properties in the United States can be
profitable especially during these times. In fact, it may be the wisest
and most perfect investment you can make right now.

Five Tips For Building An Enviable Cigar Collection

Ask any cigar smoker why they do it and they will pontificate for as long as you will let them about the sublime and meditative act of enjoying a good cigar. They will go on and on about their personal cigar-smoking experience, never once admitting to the fact that they take great pride in their knowledge of cigars and in the collection they have accumulated.

The fact is that every serious cigar smoker wants a collection that will be the envy of his friends. Even though most cigar aficionados would never admit it, there is a social and almost club-like bond between cigar smokers.

Sure, there is the image of a man sitting in his study quietly enjoying a smoke and a great novel. Solitary enjoyment is a big part of cigar smoking. But half the fun of smoking cigars is talking with your friends about the brands you have experienced and the ones that you would like to try.

Building an enviable cigar collection requires tact, variety, and daring choices. Here are a few tips toward making your collection the talk of the town.

1. Proper Storage

First off, any serious collection of cigars is going to be stored in a proper humidor. If you dont have one, it is time to get one. Beyond just keeping your cigars at the proper temperature and humidity, a humidor will add that subtle cedar flavor that is otherwise unobtainable.

The Neo Classic I Humidor is small (it only holds about 25 cigars), but it is a great starter humidor and what it lacks in size it makes up in style. It has a black lacquer finish and the corners are accented with Greek-style columns. Piano hinges support the lid and it even comes with a lock and key to keep the kids out.

On the opposite end of the size spectrum is the Montegue End Table Humidor. Yes, it is a humidor so large that it actually functions as an end table. Behind two doors and in one drawer you can store a whopping 1,500 cigars. With a humidor this size it becomes less like collecting cigars and more like stockpiling them.

Dont worry though; there are plenty of humidors of every size in between so it should be easy enough to find one that will house your collection without going too overboard.

2. Variety

The first step towards building a respectable collection is variety. This doesnt mean you have to have every obscure shape, style, and brand of cigar, but you should at least make an attempt to try and have a decent mix on hand. This isnt just for presentations sake, but it will also grow your own tastes and experience.

A nice corona is always at home in any collection and the Cruz Real Corono Sumatra is a terrific example. The Connecticut wrapper version has a great medium-bodied smoke that will make these a staple of your collection.

If you are looking to throw something a little off the beaten path into the mix then you should try the Villiger Original Krumme 4/6. They are mild Swiss made culebra style cigars. A culebra is actually 3 small cigars twirled together.

Variety is important, but you should also be careful not to get too carried away. Dont buy cigars you dont think you will actually enjoy just for the sake of mixing up your collection.

3. The Holy Grails

Every cigar collection should have a few premium cigars. Price doesnt always determine quality, but having a few expensive cigars will add a sense of exclusivity to your collection.
The CAO America Anthem is a great all-American presidente-style cigar. It is made from two Connecticut wrapper leaves that encircle longfiller tobaccos from Nicaragua, Italy, the Dominican Republic, and the United States. It is a great showpiece cigar and would make a fine centerpiece to any collection.

4. The Liquid Collection

A cigar collection should be like the menu of your favorite restaurant. There are the old standbys that made you fall in love with the cooking in the first place, but you keep coming back to see what new specials they might have.

Collecting cigars works the same way. You can amass the greatest collection of cigars that the world has ever seen, but unless you keep adding and trying new brands and styles then it will get boring in a hurry.

Dont be afraid to get out there and try something new every once in a while. This applies not just to cigars, but to your whole life. The strong and almost spicy aroma of the Arturo Fuente Don Carlos Belicoso might initially turn off someone who is used to a more mild smoke. Give it a whirl though and its blend of rare tobaccos might change your tune.

5. The Shared Collection

There isnt much point in collecting cigars if you are just going to just let them sit there. And there is no fun in showing off your collection if you arent willing to share it. You might amass a variety of cigars that would turn the most experienced aficionado into a jealous maniac, but unless you are willing to offer him a cigar from your collection he will deny your tastes until his dying day.

There is a sense of devilish delight that can be obtained from building a collection of cigars that will make your friends jealous. But the real joy in collecting cigars comes from the enjoyment you get in having a cigar with a good friend. It is fun to try new cigars and discussing your hobby with others is a great way to increase your cigar knowledge.

However, it is the other discussions that you have over a cigar that matter the most. It is the talks you and your friends have about your families. About your troubles and your dreams. About your place in the universe and in each others lives. A collection of cigars is really just material. It is how you enjoy them with the people that matter to you that is truly something enviable.

Home Staging Business A Smart Move

In countries like United States of America, Canada, Australia and in European countries, home staging is becoming a popular business. Those who are interested in interior design, home staging may be the right business for them and it has become a necessary aspect of houses sales because unlimited individuals have put homes on market and due to this, there is lot of competition and those individuals are getting problems to get amount what they deserve . If someone does not have any information about what exactly a home staging is, he can research on internet or consult any home stager who has vast experience in this type of business. Networking and business marketing are two primary parts of this business. Generally, home sellers do not select a home stager but real estate agents always consider home sellers to opt a home stager. As soon as an individual gets knowledge about market, he can develop his personal business model.

If anyone wants to be specialized, there are so many choices such as town houses, condos or single family houses. Real estate staging is another name of home staging business. Main purpose of this business is to decorate a home so that it could be sold quickly. Initial cost of this business is low and there is no need to have a store or inventory to start this business and one can easily work from home office to run this business. Moreover, this business does not need any costly advertising. Few people have misconceptions that home staging business is a kind of multi-level marketing however, this statement is absolutely false. It is not essential to involve anyone in this business and one need not to buy anything. Home staging business is considered as the most growing business. If anybody is doing a full time job, he can also start this business and he can meet his customers on weekends and evening and this business give so much flexibility to a person. By doing this business, you will get a chance to interact with interesting people.

In India, there are few persons who have shown their interest in this business. Real estate of India is currently witnessing mammoth growth and Indians who were living in big cities are migrating to small cities like Chandigarh as there is plenty of pollution and they have to face other difficulties by living in metropolitans.

Mohali has green environment and it is a blend of luxurious villas , independent houses and spacious apartments. Countless construction projects are going on and they are expected to complete in upcoming days. Realtors of Mohali have full knowledge about real estate market and they understand the needs of clients and take less time to fulfill them. Customer contentment is their main objective. Commercial and residential properties of Mohali are in high demand nowadays and investors are earning excellent revenues. If you are looking for long term benefits, buying a property in Aerocity would be an ideal option.

Semi Trucks,tractor Semi, Tractor Trailers For Sale, New And Used, With Canadian Financing

Semi trucks, tractor semi, tractor trailers for sale are located in both the Unites States and Canada, new and used, with Canadianleasing being offered to residents of Canada.

Semi Trucks are presented for sale by dealerships and auction houses through out the United States. and Canada. Some U.S dealerships have partnered with local and/or regional lending institutions to move these off lease and repossessed semi trucks with special dealer pricing being offered. U.S banks and all other lenders are holding repossessed property in their repo and off lease inventories, therefore they must move these repossessions due to the fact it is impairing their cash flow and working capital.

Cash buyers have the best opportunity to attain the repossessed tractor trailers for the lowest price.

These repossessed tractor semi listings below are spread out across the United States and Canada enabling all prospective Canadian buyers to partake in these acquistions. Also, U.S Corporate Capital Leasing has partnered with Canadianlending institutions to offer Canadians lending for semi truck acquisitions in both countries.

Canadian residents have the option either to find a semi truck in Canada or the United States. These semi trucks don’t have to be a repossession. If the prospective purchaser finds a semi truck that hasn’t been repossessed it wouldn’t disqualify the Canadian from conventional lending. This gives the Canadian the best of all worlds, a possible semi truck repo or a conventional deal located in either U.S or Canada.

These off lease deals are listed with auction houses, liquidators, banks and participating brokers, additionally, these repossessed trucks are offered in truck paper and commercial trader.

Moreover, these tractor trailers are manufactured by Peterbilt, Kenworth, Volvo, Ford, Freightliner, Mack, Western Star and Sterling

Inquire about the special easy Canadian financing programs that are available to start ups and seasoned businesses. Credit scores start as low as 550. Furthermore, down payment monies may be as low as first and last payment.

Happy hunting for your semi truck and its related Canadian lending